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The Prisoner of Zenda is the 1937 David O. Selznick Swashbuckling film adaptation of the classic Adventure novel by Anthony Hope. Of the numerous adaptations of the novel (1913, 1915, 1922, 1952, 1979, and, in a TV version, 1984), this version, directed by John Cromwell, is generally considered the best, and, indeed, one of the greatest swashbucklers ever made. The film stars Ronald Colman in the dual role of Rudolf Rassendyll, English gentleman, and Rudolph V, the ne'er-do-well king (the name is spelled both ways in the film); and co-stars Madeleine Carroll, as the lovely and lively Princess Flavia, and Douglas Fairbanks, Jr., as the wicked but engaging Count Rupert of Hentzau. Raymond Massey as the saturnine and ambitious Duke Michael, Mary Astor as his beautiful but hapless mistress Antoinette de Mauban, C. Aubrey Smith as the crusty, Macchiavellian Colonel Zapt [sic], and David Niven as the faithful though feckless Fritz von Tarlenheim lend sterling support. The sweeping romantic score, supported by use of Wagnerian leitmotives is by Alfred Newman.

Metro Goldwyn Mayer remade the film in 1952, directed by Richard Thorpe, with Stewart Granger, Deborah Kerr, and James Mason in the Colman, Carroll, and Fairbanks roles. The film was more or less a Technicolor carbon copy of the 1937 film, reusing the same script, score, and even camera angles. It was not considered a great success, however.

This work features examples of:

  • Acting for Two: Robert Colman in the lead role.
  • Adaptation Distillation: The film is generally considered faithful to the spirit of the original novel, if not always to the letter. Much of the dialogue from the novel was retained.
  • Affably Evil: Rupert of Hentzau.
  • Anti-Villain: Michael
  • Awesome Moment of Crowning: The coronation scene, including the use of a Händel anthem (See Public Domain Soundtrack, below), was probably inspired by the coronation of George VI of England.
  • Becoming the Mask: Rassendyll becomes the role of king much more than the King does.
  • Bittersweet Ending
  • Blade Lock: Allows Rudolf and Rupert to exchange some choice taunts.
  • Crowning Music of Awesome: Yes, Newman's score is lovely -- but, c'mon, who can beat Händel at a coronation?
  • Deadpan Snarker. Rassendyll, Zapt, even Princess Flavia -- but above all, Rupert of Hentzau.
  • Defrosting Ice Queen: Princess Flavia, though she knows she must marry the King, is not pleased about it -- until she gets to know him better, after his coronation. Alas!
  • Did Not Get the Girl
  • Enigmatic Minion
  • The Evil Prince: Or, rather, the Evil Duke.
  • Evil Versus Evil: Boozing indolent bully versus politically competent but personally unpleasant usurper.
  • Fake King
  • Fanfare: Newman composed several for this film, notably one on representing the Ruritanian monarchy itself -- which, in the minor, becomes associated with Black Michael.
  • Flynning: Very nicely done in this film -- for the most part. (See Narm, below.)
  • Getting Crap Past the Radar: Some highly intertaining verbal gymnastics were needed to convey the fact that a previous King of Ruritania had an affair with a married woman and got her pregnant in a manner acceptable film censorship boards of the same era.
  • Gratuitous French: At the ball, the master of ceremonies announces, « Avec la permission de Sa Majesté, le bal commence ! Valse générale ! » ("With the permission of His Majesty, the ball begins! General waltz!"\x9D) and later « La valse dernière ! » ("The last waltz!"\x9D). This is in accordance with the ceremonial of the royal courts of the 19th century.
  • Hero Antagonist: Michael is an excellent example ― one sometimes wonders whether Ruritania wouldn't be better off with him on the throne..
  • Heroes Want Redheads: Averted, in that Flavia, who is a redhead in the novel, is played by the "golden-haired goddess," Madeleine Carroll (a classic English Rose).
  • Heroic Bastard: Rassendyll, the hero, is illegitimately related to the royal family of Ruritania.
  • Honor Before Reason: Constant throughout. Lampshaded by Hentzau, of all people: "Ohoho, shoot with a lady present? In England, old boy, it simply isn't done."
  • Lampshade Hanging: Particularly associated with Rupert, who says of the main feature of the plot: "Not your type of fiction, I see, Your Highness -- too improbable. Still, these things do happen. I knew twin sisters once--"\x9D He also lampshades Rassendyll's Honor Before Reason philosophy several times (See previous entry), as well as the unnecessary convolution of the Duke's plot to drug the King ("If only he'd drunk what I wanted to put in the bottle!").
  • Lost in Imitation: The director of the 1952 version watched this film frame by frame and copied all the set-ups exactly. The score was also recycled. It didn't work.
  • Love Makes You Evil: Rupert lusts after Black Michael's mistress, Antoinette de Mauban, and ends up killing Michael because of it.
  • Magnificent Bastard: Both Michael and Rupert on the baddies' side, and Zapt on the goodies'.
  • Men of Sherwood: Zapt's troops, whom he has waiting in reserve for the big final assault.
  • Narm: Nothing, alas! being perfect, Rassendyll's disposal of Bersonin by stabbing him under his arm, and the subsequent convenient exit of the defeated down "Jacob's Ladder" with a "Whaaaaa!" is not effective.
  • Notable Original Music: Alfred Newman's lush romantic score, which was mined for use in other films and repeated entire for the 1952 remake. Notable for its use of Leitmotif.
  • Our Lawyers Advised This Trope: "Any resemblance in 'The Prisoner of Zenda' to Heroes, Villains, or Heroines, living or dead, is a coincidence not intended... "
  • Pragmatic Adaptation: This is generally considered the best of the cinematic versions, though it changes some details, as in introducing Hentzau near the beginning and making Flavia a blonde.
  • Prisoner of Zenda Exit: Of course -- as a matter of fact, the trope is better represented by this film than by the original novel.
  • Public Domain Soundtrack: In the midst of the original score by Alfred Newman, the coronation scene is accompanied by an anthem to the tune of "See, the Conqu'ring Hero Comes" from Händel's Judas Maccabaeus. This was probably inspired by the use of Händel anthems, such as Zadok the Priest" at British coronations.
    • Also, at the ball, the orchestra plays the „Künstlerleben" ("Artists' Life") Waltz by Johann Strauss the Younger. Later on in the film, Kraftstein whistles a few bars of Strauss's waltz, „An der schönen blauen Donau" ("The Blue Danube").
  • Redheaded Hero: Averted (probably, though it's hard to tell in black and white) as the hero/king are both played by the brown-haired Ronald Colman.
  • Reliable Traitor
  • Royal Blood
  • Royally Screwed-Up
  • Ruritania: Actually never mentioned by name in the entire film!
  • Shot for Shot Remake: The 1952 version. The director, Richard Thorpe, actually sat watching the earlier film in an 8mm viewer, and copying from that.
  • Shout-Out: A number of subsequent (usually comic) versions of the story enjoy parodying specific moments or aspects of this film. One of the funniest was the Prince Hapnick sequence of The Great Race -- particularly Baron von Stuppe (Ross Martin)'s take on Rupert's Prisoner of Zenda Exit.

  "Oh! Woman in our Hours of Ease

Uncertain, coy, and hard to please--

When pain and anguish wring the brow,

A ministering Angel, thou!"

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