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Titles called "Chancellor" (Kanzler) go way back. The Carolingian Empire and the Holy Roman Empire had positions called "Archchancellor" (Erzkanzler). After the end of the Napoleonic Wars, Prussia and Austria had State Chancellors (Staatskanzler).
The North German Confederation (which was the prototype of the empire; it even had the same flag) had a Federal Chancellor (Bundeskanzler) between 1867 and 1871, who was, of course, Otto von Bismarck.
German Empire (1871-1918)
In the German Empire, the Imperial Chancellor (Reichskanzler) was appointed by the Emperor. The parliament (Reichstag) could do jack shit about it and was mostly there to argue about the budget or wait for the chancellor to initiate a bill (which they couldn't do themselves). The Reichskanzler was technically a one-man administration, who appointed secretaries to assist him.
- Otto Von Bismarck (1871-1890) -- Proud owner of a Badass Moustache and a Bald of Awesome. Nicknamed "Der eiserne Kanzler" ("The Iron Chancellor"). Most famous for his Genghis Gambits that led to the unification of Germany (minus Austria), the creation of the welfare state and his complex system of alliances to keep the peace in Europe by isolating France and being allies or neutral with all other powers. Most infamous for his destruction of the Frankfurt Parliament in 1848, his
attacks on neighboring nationsmanipulating neighboring nations into starting wars with him so he could have them trounced without being seen as the aggressor (re: the Genghis Gambit spree), censorship laws, anti-socialist laws, and weakening the Democratic organs of the German Empire via the constitution he wrote, blunders against the Catholic church (Kulturkampf - struggle about culture), the defacto kidnapping of the young to-be Wilhelm II, and his complex system of alliances to keep the peace in Europe. He opposed German colonialism, but ended up getting colonies for Germany anyway due to his Realpolitik. Emperor Wilhelm I mostly let Bismarck do whatever he wanted. Wilhelm II however, wanted to govern the country himself and forced Bismarck to resign after several disagreements over social reforms and anti-socialist laws (as well as the abuse he was subjected to earlier in life at Bismarck's hands). During his retirement, Bismarck warned the Emperor several times that his aggressive foreign policy would lead to war. He famously predicted both the trigger of World War One ("some damned silly thing in the Balkans") as well as the year it broke out. In 2003, he was voted 9th greatest German of all time.
- Leo von Caprivi (1890-1894) -- Former Army General. Had the thankless job of being Bismarck's successor, against whom almost anyone would've compared unfavorably. He began the implementation of Wilhelm II's "New Course" into German policy: Social reforms, more free trade and a pro-British foreign policy. The latter included giving up the good relations with Russia, since he himself admitted that he wasn't Magnificent Bastard enough to maintain Bismarck's sophisticated foreign policy. He finished the negotiations for the Zanzibar treaty, which traded land between Germany and the British Empire. A strip of land in Africa is still named after him.
- Prince Chlodwig zu Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst (1894-1900) -- Elderly (he was already 75 in 1894) former prime minister of Bavaria and diplomat. He finished the BGB, the first civil code for all of Germany, which is still in force today.
- Bernhard von Bülow (1900-1909) -- Had already been something of a "shadow chancellor" during the later years of Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst. His ill-thought foreign policy poisoned the relations with Britain, which led to the creation of the Entente between Britain and France. With his statements of support of Austria-Hungary regarding the balkans (Nibelungentreue) he helped laying the foundation for World War One. Critics claimed he was so slimy "compared to him, an eel is like a hedgehog!" The Daily-Telegraph-Affair destroyed his relationship with the Emperor and he had to resign. His posthumously published memoirs were so blatantly self serving that the ex-Kaiser said Bülow was the only man he'd known who had died and then committed suicide.
- Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg (1909-1917) -- His pre-WWI foreign policy was geared towards improving Germany's relations with Britain and he attempted to reform Prussia's classist election system. He failed at both, and his influence on the Emperor was more and more eclipsed by that of the military. Trying to find compromises between the left and right wings of the Reichstag only earned him the loathing of both sides. The opinion of historians about him are mixed, especially about his role in the war and its outbreak. His failed attempts to reach a peace with the Entente earned him the hate of Hindenburg and Ludendorff and they forced him to resign.
- Georg Michaelis (1917) -- "Georg who?" The obscure Prussian official Michaelis was pushed into office by the German High Command. He managed to turn the entire Reichstag against him after just five days in office and quickly noticed, that whatever makes a good chancellor, he didn't have it.
- Georg von Hertling (1917-1918) -- Becoming chancellor during the military and economic collapse of the country, he struggled to implement democratic reforms to prevent a revolution in Germany, but lost support in the Reichstag when his reforms didn't go fast enough.
- Prince Maximilian of Baden (1918) -- Hastily appointed when Germany needed a head of government with the support of the Reichstag and whom the Entente would negotiate with. He fired Ludendorff, ended the U-boat war, sued for peace and declared the abdication of Wilhelm II. He resigned on first day of the November Revolution, which ended the German Empire.
Today, all of the chancellors of the German Empire are rather obscure outside of historical circles. Except for Otto von Bismarck, of course.
Revolutionary Period (1918-1919; sometimes lumped with the Weimar Republic)
- Friedrich Ebert (1918-1919) -- Social Democrat. He was proclaimed chancellor by Maximilian of Baden on the first day of the revolution without being asked beforehand. This was an attempt to "parliamentize" the revolution and to keep it form turning into a full blown civil war like the Russian Revolution. He oversaw the transition from the German Empire to the Weimar Republic, the beginning of the demobilisation and prevented a Bolshevist revolution with military force. Today, he is more remembered for being the first President of the Weimar Republic.
Weimar Republic (1919-1933)
In the Weimar Republic, the Imperial Chancellor (Reichskanzler) and all ministers were appointed by the Imperial President (Reichspräsident; the "Ersatzkaiser"), but could be disposed by the lower house (Reichstag) with a simple majority. The Reichskanzler was a fairly weak figure, as his ministers were not bound to follow any of his orders and the cabinet could overturn his decisions by majoritiy vote.
- Philipp Scheidemann (1919) -- Social Democrat. No documentary about general German history is complete without the footage of him proclaiming the republic from a balcony of the Reichstag building in 1918. He opposed the Treaty of Versailles and chose to resign rather than to approve to it.
- Gustav Bauer (1919-1920) -- Social Democrat. He approved the Treaty of Versailles, but not without subtext of revenge. He lost the support of the SPD after the Kapp-Putsch and resigned.
- Hermann Müller (1920) -- Social Democrat.
- Konstantin Fehrenbach (1920-1921) - Centre Party. He struggled with the gigantic financial demands of the Entente and had to resign when he failed to find support in the Reichstag.
- Joseph Wirth (1922) -- Centre Party. His first administration resigned as a protest against the transfer of upper Silesia to Poland by the Entente. He is most remembered for his famous speech during his second administration: "The Enemy is to the right".
- Wilhelm Cuno (1922-1923) -- Independent. He, too, struggled with the reparation payments. When France and Belgium occupied the Rhineland he encouraged "passive resistance" through general strikes and sabotage. This bankrupted the country further and he had to resign.
- Gustav Stresemann (1923) -- Liberal Nationalist. One of the most well remembered chancellors of the Weimar Republic and recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize. He ended the passive resistance in the Rhineland, reached several agreements with the Entente regarding Versailles and did a monetary reform to end the hyperinflation. The Reichstag axed him anyway. He stayed Germany's foreign minister until his death of a stroke in 1929 which left a huge gap in Germany's diplomatic relations, especially those with France.
- Wilhelm Marx (1923-1925) -- Centre Party. He stabilized the economy further and struggled with seperatists in Palatinate and the Rhineland.
- Hans Luther (1925-1926) -- Independent. His majority in the Reichstag fell apart after he had recognized the new eastern border. He was deposed later over a Flag dispute with Hindenburg.
- (Otto Geßler (1926) -- Democratic Party. Six days filler chancellor. Usually not mentioned or counted.)
- Wilhelm Marx (1926-1928) -- Centre Party. In his second run, he brought Germany into the League of Nations and fired General Hans von Seeckt, who had turned the Reichswehr into a "state within a state".
- Hermann Müller (1928-1930) -- Social Democrat. Considered the last democratic chancellor of the Weimar Republic. His administration was toppled by a dispute over a 0.25% increase of the unemployment insurance payments.
- Heinrich Brüning (1930-1932) -- Centre Party. Together with Hindenburg, he seeked to undermine the influence of the unstable Reichstag and ruled with presidential emergency decrees instead of laws under toleration by the SPD. His attempts to ease the Great Depression were a failure and the election of 1930 saw massive gains for the Nazis and Communists, which led to a massive withdrawal of foreign money from Germany. He, however, managed to have the reparation payments reduced to 3 billion goldmark (which were never paid) and banned the Nazi SS and SA. A dispute over agricultural aids with Hindenburg ended his administration. Historians views on Brüning are mixed.
- Franz von Papen (1932) -- Centre Party (went independent after two days). He was installed by Schleicher, who needed someone to work Hindenburg. Schleicher openly admitted that Papen just was a figurehead. He used emergency decrees to unban the SS and SA, dissolve the Reichstag (which was once only minutes away from kicking him out) two times within the same year (which brought gains to the anti-democratic parties) and activate the Reichswehr to take over the State of Prussia with military force. Later, he tried to talk Hindenburg into a coup against the Republic, but was crossed by Schleicher. Became vice-chancellor during the early years of Nazi rule and was tried and acquitted after the war for his involvement in the Austrian "Anschluss".
- Kurt von Schleicher (1932-1933) -- Independent. Backstabbing Papen had earned him a powerful enemy, as Papen still had a lot of influence over Hindenburg. Schleicher struggled against the anti-democratic parties in the Reichstag and attempted to split and weaken the Nazi Party. Papen quickly ganged up with Hitler against Schleicher. This led to Hitler's appointment as chancellor through Papen's influence on Hindenburg and the end of the Weimar Republic. Schleicher was killed by the SS during the Night of the Long Knives in 1934.
The Weimar Republic was an unstable political clusterfuck of epic proportions with 21 administrations under 12 chancellors in only 14 years. Most of its chancellors are largely forgotten today due to their short terms and failure to make a difference. Scheidemann and Stresemann are still remembered positively. Franz von Papen is still infamous for his manipulations of the increasingly senile President Hindenburg and for his role in Hitler's rise to the office of chancellor. He lived until 1969 and never saw prison.
Nazi Germany (1933-1949)
- Adolf Hitler (1933-1945) -- National Socialist (Duh). After being appointed, Hitler wasted no time and formed a coalition of anti-democratic/anti-communist parties, talked Hindenburg to give him more powers and used the Reichstag Fire to pass the Enabling Act (Reichsermächtigungsgesetz). In the Night of the Long Knives (aka Röhm-Putsch), Hitler's SS killed several competitors and drove many others (including Papen) out of politics. Upon Hindenburg's death, Hitler merged the offices of chancellor and president into one position called "(Supreme) Leader and Reich Chancellor" ("Führer und Reichskanzler"). The rest is history. More about him on his own page.
- Joseph Goebbels (1945) -- National Socialist. Nazi Germany's Minister of Propaganda. Hitler's political testament broke up his combined government office into President and Chancellor once again after his death. Grand Admiral Karl Dönitz became the new Reichspräsident, while Goebbels succeeded Hitler as Reichskanzler for a few hours before he took his own life as well (and those of his family). More about him on the Nazi Germany page.
- Johann Ludwig Graf Schwerin von Krosigk (1945) -- National Socialist. Officially "Leading Minister of the acting Reich Government" and also foreign minister and finance minister under Dönitz. About a week in office, apart from finance minister, which he held since before Hitler's takeover. Since most of Germany was already occupied, his only significant act (as foreign minister) was to declare the unconditional surrender of the German Wehrmacht.
Karl Dönitz was neither Chancellor nor Führer. He signed the surrender as President (Reichspräsident) of Germany.
West Germany (1949-1990)
Learning from the failure of the Weimar Republc, the Bonn Republic featured a largely depowered Federal President (Bundespräsident) and a much stronger lower house.
The Federal Chancellor (Bundeskanzler) is directly elected by the parliament (Bundestag; the lower house) and runs the country indirectly through the ministers. His/her term is bound to that of the Bundestag and automatically expires with it. The Bundeskanzler can appoint and dismiss the Ministers through the Präsident.
- Konrad Adenauer (1949-1963) -- Christian Democrat (i.e. Conservative). Nicknamed "Der Alte" ("The old one"), as he was already 73 years old upon election. Won by just one vote - it is claimed, his own one. Former grand mayor of Cologne, but the Nazis destroyed his political career - and later even threw him in a concentration camp - for refusing to shake the hand of an influential Nazi leader. Adenauer oriented Germany towards the West (Westbindung), reconciled with France and, together with Ludwig Erhard, made the economic boom (Wirtschaftswunder) possible. Together with De Gaulle, he laid the foundation for the EU. He made a dinky small town at the Rhine the capital and secured the return of the last Germany POWs from the Soviet Union in 1955. He also had seven kids and even more grandkids. (Helmut Kohl isn't among them, although he called himself "Adenauer's grandson".) In 2003, he was voted greatest German of all time.
- Ludwig Erhard (1963-1966) -- Christian Democrat. Nicknamed "Der Dicke" ("The fat one"). The cigar smoking father of the social market economy (soziale Marktwirtschaft) and the economic boom in Germany. He, however, did this as Minister of Economy under Adenauer. As chancellor, Erhard improved relations with the USA and opened official diplomatic relations with Israel. The introduction of the Deutschmark is often misattributed to him, yet was ordered by the Americans. He only implemented it, though his timing was faster than expected and he had to talk himself out of trouble with General Clay (the head of the occupation forces in the Tri-Zone)
- Kurt Georg Kiesinger (1966-1969) -- Christian Democrat. Nicknamed "Häuptling Silberzunge" ("Chief Silvertongue"/"Chief Sweettalker"), as he was the "head" of a grand coalition and spend most of his time negotiating between the SPD and CDU/CSU. The overwhelming majority of the grand coalition, the introduction of emergency laws (Notstandsgesetze) and his past as a Nazi party member made him the target of the rage of the emerging student movement.
- Willy Brandt (1969-1974) -- Social Democrat. Received the Nobel Peace Prize for improving Germany's relations with Eastern Europe and East Germany (Neue Ostpolitik). Most remembered for his genuflection (Kniefall) at the Warsaw Ghetto Memorial in Poland. He had to resign after one of his closest advisors, Günter Guillaume, was revealed to be an East German spy. He commissioned the Brandt Report on the North-South divide. In 2003, he was voted 5th greatest German of all time.
- Helmut Schmidt (1974-1982) -- Social Democrat. Sometimes called "Schmidt-Schnauze" (roughly: Big mouth). He ran the country during the terror of the Red Army Faction. He was the realist/pragmatist/cynical Foil for Willy Brandt, the big idealist. At more than 90 years old, he now is unofficially the only man allowed to smoke on German television and was voted the most popular German politician of recent history in 2005.
- Helmut Kohl (1982-1998) -- Christian Democrat. Became chancellor through a motion of no confidence against Helmut Schmidt. He worked towards a Europe without borders (Schengen Treaty) and laid the foundation for the Euro. Was a favorite target for political cabaretists and caricaturists, just like Margaret Thatcher in Britain. Polls showed that he would lose the next election, but then the Wall came down. He wasted no time, promised Reunification as fast as possible and garnered the support of the allies of WWII for it. This earned him two reelections in the reunified Germany.
Berlin Republic (1990-present)
The reunified Germany continued to use the West German system (see above).
- Helmut Kohl (1982-1998) -- Christian Democrat. After the Reunification, Kohl struggled with his promises that he had made to the east Germans. The high rates of unemployment ended his chancellorship after 16 years. Due to his long rule, he is sometimes called "Der ewige Kanzler" ("The eternal chancellor"). His talent to a) make friends among the mighty of the world and b) neutralize his political enemies may have helped him stay in power that long.
- Gerhard Schröder (1998-2005) -- Social Democrat. Originally very pro-American (he supported the Afghanistan war), he later actively opposed the Iraq war and improved Germany's relations with France and Russia instead (most notably the controversial Baltic pipeline). Schröder did several social reforms that alienated many social democrats. He proved to be quite the electoral Magnificent Bastard in 2005: when he felt that he had lost his support in the Bundestag, he filed a motion of no confidence against himself to trigger re-elections. He then turned on the charm and campaigned like hell, managing to get the SPD's share of the vote much higher than expected and forcing a grand coalition in the next Bundestag. He could have even stayed on as Chancellor if he hadn't promised not to enter in an alliance with the Left Party.
- Angela Merkel (2005-present) -- Christian Democrat. First woman and first person from the former East Germany to have the job. She is a Doctor of Physics (her Thesis was about quantum chemistry) who moved into East German politics around the time of the fall of the Berlin Wall; she was elected to the first, last, and only democratically-elected Volkskammer (parliament) of East Germany before it dissolved. Forbes lists her among the most powerful women in the world since 2006. In 2009, the Christian Democrats' traditional allies, the Free Democrats (FDP; free-market liberals) picked up enough seats to allow Merkel to shed the SPD and govern with their preferred partner. As Chancellor, she is known more for being a steady pair of hands at the helm, as opposed to the flashy media-genius of her predecessor. Also got embarrassed by being named "unfuckable lard-arse" - by Silvio Berlusconi nonetheless.
Appearances of German Chancellors (except for Hitler, who has his own page) in fiction:
- Otto von Bismarck appears as a character in the historical novel Royal Flash, part of the Flashman series of books by George Macdonald Fraser. In the novel, Bismarck is portrayed as a very aggressive and ambitious character with excellent horsemanship skills. In the film version, he was portrayed by Oliver Reed.
- After meeting Bismarck at the Congress of Berlin, Benjamin Disraeli cast him as the Count of Ferroll in his 1880 novel Endymion.
- In the 1941 film The Prime Minister, a biopic of Disraeli, Bismarck is shown ranting whilst his shadow falls across the map of Europe, implying that the 1870s Eastern crisis was caused by German desire to dominate the Balkans (a false implication, but the film was made in Britain during World War II).
- Bismarck appears as the German leader in several Civilization games.
- Much comedy has been made of Angela Merkel receiving an unwanted back rub from George W. Bush at a summit a few years back, mostly at the latter's expense.