Both Ash and Bishop from the Aliens franchise have names containing SH, possibly to indicate they are Synthetic Humanoids. Falls apart in Alien Resurrection with Annalee Call though, unless C-near-L stands for Cybernetic Lifeform or similar.
Cybernetic Artificial Lifeform, perchance?
There's also the A-B-C pattern to think about.
And Prometheus would continue this pattern with "David".
Truth in Television. X is the universally recognized letter to let people know that something is a prototype, or "experimental" equipment. That's why experimental planes are called X-Planes and have designations like "X-10" or "XF-1". It's similar to how fighter jets tend to have F in their designation.
Joey: I'm up for the part of Mac Macaveli or "Mac". I'm a detective and I solve crimes with the help of my robot partner. He's a Computerized Humanoid Electronically Enhanced Secret Enforcer or "C.H.E.E.S.E."
Rachel: So... Mac and C.H.E.E.S.E.?
Joey:That's the title! Yeah! You know, they really lucked out that the initials spell cheese.
Chandler: That is lucky.
SELMA (Specified Encapsulated Limitless Memory Archive) from Time Trax.
Parodied on Mystery Science Theater 3000 when Joel reveals to Crow in a flashback that his name actually stands for "Cybernetic Remotely Operated Woman." After Crow flips out that he's really a woman, Joel reveals it as the elaborate set-up for a joke.
R.O.B, the Nintendo robot who has made cameos in several games. Stands for "Robotic Operating Buddy", since it helps you play games.
KOS-MOS, in Xenosaga. Her name is not only a backronym, it's also a recursive acronym. Kosmos Obey Strategical Multiple Operation Systems.
In the same series, MOMO is an acronym for Multiple Observation Mimetic Organicus.
In the video game Song Summoner: the Unsung Heroes, Z.E.R.O.'s name isn't actually an acronym; he's named after Ziggy's brother Zero, and as a reference to the fact that his serial number (SGNB 00000000 AA) contains many zeroes.
The CyborgName website bacronyms your name and sells T-shirts with the robot names on them. This wiki translates as "Transforming Versatile Technician Responsible for Observation, Peacekeeping and Efficient Sabotage".
The B.A.T.s ("Battle Android Trooper") from G.I. Joe.
F.L.U.F.F.I. from Bionic Six.
JANICE, from Robotech, stands for "Junctioned Artificial Neuro-Integrated Cybernetic Entity".
In Carmen's backstory in Where on Earth Is Carmen Sandiego??, The Chief's name is revealed to be an acronym meaning "Computerized Holographic Imaging Educational Facilitator." Back when he worked with Carmen, he was a robot.
A string of numbers and letters, often containing at least one hyphen.
In Marvel Comics, Machine Man's official designation when he was built was X-51, but he much prefers the name his adoptive father gave him, Aaron. In fact, addressing him as "X-51" is probably the fastest way to make him angry at you.
Buck Rogers gives us Twiki, from the robot's alphanumeric designation: TWKE-4
The titular character in Eric Frank Russell's 1941 story, Jay Score revealed to be a model J.20 robot on the final page.
Although not robots, Lois McMaster Bujold uses this for the names of several genetically engineered life forms. In Ethan of Athos, Terrance's full product number includes Terran-C, and Janine's number includes J9. In "Labryinth", Miles meets Nine, the last survivor of ten prototypes. She is later renamed Taura. The Quaddies from Falling Free all have names derived from their serial numbers as well. The names vary from traditional (Tony) through unusual-but-not-unheard-of (Silver) to decidedly odd (Pramod).
It seems that the standardized format for designating robots in Gunnerkrigg Court is through single-letter model designations (H-Models for the horse robots, HL-Models for the heavy lifting robots, S-Models for the "Seraph" robots, etc.). Individual robots get numbers appended to their model name: the robot that Annie built is S13, and the Super Prototype of the S-Models is S1.
Though there are multiple exceptions: see every other subsection of this page.
K-10, KIT-9, and COCKA-3 from the "Go God Go XVII" episode of South Park. They are supposed to be close to things you'd read as an actual word; if K-10 and KIT-9 switched numbers, they would be read like "canine" and "kitten," in reference to the species they are designed after. Similarly, if COCKA-3's number was one less, it'd be "cockatoo."
Probably invented by Isaac Asimov with his US Robotics stories: NDR = Andrew, LNE = Lenny, etc.
The Bolos created by Keith Laumer usually have three-letter designations (sometimes with numbers) and nicknames derived from those designations: Unit LNE (Lenny), JSN (Jason), SPQR (Senator), DAK (Das Afrika Korps), and RML-1138 (Rommel) are typical examples. The last two appear in unrelated stories.
Most robots from Yokohama Kaidashi Kikou choose their own, usually human-sounding, name. Kokone is one such example.
Chachamaru Karakuri in Mahou Sensei Negima: her name is written with the Kanji for "tea", while "Karakuri" are a spring-powered, tea-serving doll mainly used in Japan's Meiji period. Meaningful Name indeed.
Zane Gort from The Silver Eggheads by Fritz Leiber, a robot author (creator of the popular Dr. Tungsten series), whose name is an homage to Zane Gray and to Gort, the alien robot of The Day the Earth Stood Still. Also, his lady-love, the government-built censor-robix, Miss Phyllis Blushes. (She's plated in pink anodized aluminum. Zane, on the other hand, is blued steel.) (And "robix" is that setting's term for a female robot. Robot sexuality is one of the amusing features of the setting.)