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Kenjutsu is the Japanese form of swordsmanship.
The word "kenjutsu" can either refer to Japanese sword arts as a whole, or to the subset of teachings that focus on action occurring after the two combatants have already drawn their swords. These include:
- Battojutsu: The classical art of the drawing of the sword. Used with live blades, practitioners train in a combination of rehearsing battle engagement, including sword drawing procedure; free form movement, and drawing upon school teachings to get a feel for their sword and style for combat effectiveness, including factors of timing, distance, form, and the features of one's blade, including size, shape, and length, to strike readily and to be prepared to counterattack otherwise. Actual target and test cutting is also included.
- Iaijutsu: A more modern form of practicing sword drawing, iaijutsu focuses on rehearsing kata, body movement, form, and mental readiness to exercise one's effectiveness. While it is considered a sport like kendo, it is also considered a more spiritual practice to help the user control their body, elevate their state of mind while in performance, and be at one with their weapon.
Japanese swordplay uses the following weapons:
- Katana: The sword that most people immediately think of. It was three feet or so long, with approximately a quarter of that as the hilt.
- Wakizashi: The shorter companion sword to the katana, usually about two feet long. Used in two-sword forms or in some single forms. It was considered the "indoor" sword; samurai didn't use the katana indoors, because of low ceilings, etiquette and the like.
- Naginata: Blade on a Stick. This was the Japanese anti-cavalry weapon developed after the first Mongol invasion in 1274. The naginata is traditionally considered to be the weapon of a samurai woman, and often presented as part of her dowry; however, this is a more recent view than people usually think. A few arts have curricula devoted to fighting with it.
- Yari: Spear. Usually about six feet long or so, used for thrusting and cutting similar to a Chinese spear.
- Bo: Simple Staff. Commonly about six feet long.
- Bokken: Trope Maker for Wooden Katanas Are Even Better. A simple shaft of wood planed and carved down in like form of katana, this was not just a training instrument to build form and control, but a useful makeshift weapon with blunt force trauma behind it, not unlike a club.
- Iaito: A more modern invention, this is a cheaper mock-up of a katana, with a dulled edge, made (usually) of an aluminium-zinc alloy or stainless steel. It's used by beginning students of iaijutsu who have "outgrown" the use of a bokken. It allows a beginner to practice without worrying if they'll harm their sword or themselves somehow.
- Shinai: Waster made from four strips of flexible bamboo around a hollow core, used in Kendo to facilitate contact practice. Originally created by the founder of Shinkage-ryu for safer training purposes, the first variant was known as a hikihada shinai, being a red lacquered leather shafted shinai with a slatted cushioning "edge" on its contact side of the bamboo stick, and has no guard. Some Koryu or traditional schools including Yagyu Shinkage can be recognized by their use of hikihada shinai, which is actually rare to see used outside of them.
The first thing that a would-be initiate notices when observing a practice for the first time is the amount of ritual involved: bowing to the kamiza, to the sword, to training partners, when crossing swords etc. This is a holdover from when the arts were widely practiced by samurai; Japanese culture places extreme emphasis on etiquette. More pragmatically, etiquette involving the sword is there for safety purposes; someone drawing a sword in iai practice without observing standard protocol could be mistaken as intent on attacking someone. Here are a few common points, by no means a complete list:
- Metal swords are always sheathed when not in use, and are not used without at least a hint of a pre-practice ritual.
- The blade and/or the handle are oriented towards specific directions when placing the sword on the floor (e.g. for torei) or giving it to someone else. Exact details vary.
- Swords other than one's own are never handled without permission. If this becomes necessary, the sword is treated with utmost care and respect; not only are swords sharp and may be another person's property, samurai believed that their swords represented their souls and deserved complete respect.
- The blade of a sword is never touched with one's fingers, with the rare example of a half-swording technique. Not only is this considered disrespectful, the oils from the human skin can corrode the blade.
- Swords are always stepped around, not over.
- Even practice weapons such as the bokken or shinai are treated as though they have a live edge.
Uniformly, the usual clothing for a kenjutsu practice has been a gi (large jacket) and hakama (wide pleated pants), the common everyday clothes of feudal Japan. Colours did vary across schools and between seasons; generally, the hakama is black or dark grey, whereas the gi is navy blue or black. Higher-level practitioners may be permitted to wear a white hakama.
How the Katana Cuts
Despite its curved, single-edge construction, the katana was not limited to slicing; its structure made it possible to withstand chopping movements as well. For that reason, the most efficient way to cut would be to blend the two motions, so that the arc of the sword-tip is wider than the arc of the hands; like this, the sword would enter a target obliquely, then come out straight perpendicular to its own trajectory. Of course, since katana were scarcely heavier than 1kg, relying on the sword's weight was not sufficient to cut that way; the practitioner had to utilise his entire body (left hand giving as much or more power than the right, proper footwork, quick torso rotation) to cut with power and precision. It was overwhelmingly common to hold the sword with both hands; however, a handful of schools also taught techniques with a sword in each hand (one katana, one wakizashi), or (even rarer) a katana in one hand and its sheath in the other.
Like many feudal societies, the Japanese believed that left-handedness was a sign of evil or deception; therefore, sword techniques were taught exclusively as right-handed. This is reflected in the grip; the katana is usually gripped both-handed, with the left hand near the pommel and the right near the hand-guard. This holds true whether the sword is placed by the right side of the body or the left. Usually, the pinky and ring fingers hold the handle the strongest, and the index and thumb only barely touch it.
As with any type of swordsmanship, movement is vital in kenjutsu. Rather than passively defending against an attack, it's preferable to avoid it or use a counter-attack to nullify it; both of these require a good knowledge of footwork. The most common foot positioning in kenjutsu is called sankakudai, or "great triangle" in reference to the leg position. The lead foot (in most cases the right) points directly forward. The trailing foot is angled anywhere from 30 to 45 degrees outward. Different ryu will vary on the width and length of this stance; a few (mainly the more modern ones) prefer to keep the feet parallel.
Different schools taught different types of footwork. There's a wide gamut of walking methods taught: Some ryu walk ordinarily, others use the heels to support all of the weight, others don't even let them touch the ground. As time went on, the steps taken were refined, to the point that modern kendo teaches several different types of steps that one can take, depending on direction and foot order. Generally, the only teaching relative to footwork that the various ryu have in common, is that they all teach that the sword and body should move in unison.
Also known as kamae, stances in kenjutsu are guard postures used for different situations. Depending on ryu, the stances taught vary; however, five basic kamae are used across virtually all of them, sometimes with different names and/or specific details.
- Chudan: Centre stance, philosophically associated with the element of Water due to its adaptiveness, and Person or Being, as the sword stems from the user much like the soul of the samurai. The sword is pointing towards the opponent, at the height of his sternum or throat or eyes, depending on school. The pommel is usually one or two fists away from the user's body, though of course this varies with the school and, indeed, the individual. Perfect for thrusting, this stance also allows for cutting movements if the user can safely arm.
- Jodan: High stance, philosophically associated with the element of Fire due to its aggressiveness, and Heaven as the sword stands valorously high. The sword is held above the head, ready to strike down in a powerful vertical or diagonal cut. Most basic cuts can be executed instantly from here, without the need to arm the sword first. Jodan is usually taken with the left foot forward (left-jodan), to allow the torso's rotation (as the right foot is brought forward) to add to the sword's speed.
- Gedan: Low stance, philosophically associated with the element of Earth due to its immovability and frankness. Here, the sword is pointed down at the enemy's knee. It's meant to be defensive and/or lure the opponent in for an attack. From gedan, one can thrust at the lower body or bring the sword up in a rising cut to counter against the enemy's attack.
- Hasso: A side stance, philosophically associated with the element of Wood due to its uprightness, and Yin as the sword held above casts a shadow. Superficially similar to left-jodan, hasso places the left foot forward, with the hand-guard held beside the face. Hasso portrays a less aggressive intent than jodan. It was devised mainly for waiting to see what an opponent would do, or as a jodan-substitute when the one's helmet was too ornate to use jodan.
- Waki: Rear stance, philosophically associated with the element of Metal due to its latency, and Yang as it is if the user is like a source of light. As it could hide the sword behind the user's body, it was commonly called the "hidden guard" in many ryu. This may also help to conceal the length of the sword or a broken blade to surprise the opponent. While ostensibly an awkward stance, it can actually perform various attacks rather smoothly.
Apart from those, various iaijutsu schools also devised new ways to sit. As there was an apparent need to be alert and ready to fight even when seated, many iaijutsu schools created techniques for attacking from the regular seiza position. Others, however, modified it to facilitate easier standing, and some even preferred to sit on one knee and one foot in order to be constantly on the ready.
In the past, the most common fundamental technique amongst schools was a cut to the head. Among other possible targets were the arms or neck or torso for cutting, or the throat and chest for thrusting. The actual techniques are, of course, limitless, but those are the ones found most commonly between schools.
Some schools taught techniques to avoid an attack, others taught techniques to flowingly move the enemy's sword off the centreline as part of one's regular attack. Generally, however, it was considered far more preferable to just attack before the enemy has a chance to react. Secondary to that is to ruin the opponent's technique and then attack, and tertiary is to let the opponent perform that technique and then make one's attack in response.
Schools that date back to the time when armoured battlefield combat was more common, such as the Kamakura Era and the Sengoku, used extremely close-quarters fighting techniques: grapples using the blade as leverage, low-line upward thrusts meant to pierce where an enemy's armor did not cover, blows with the pommel aimed at the face, eyes, or throat if it was uncovered, cuts to the insides of the legs or other unprotected areas.
Most of the time, the techniques were taught through choreographed imitations of battle, called kata. As the outcome was pre-determined, focus was on the execution: correct distance and footwork, good timing, powerful and precise strikes, visible alertness towards other possible threats, etc. Different schools placed different emphases on each of those.
Focused on Kenjutsu
Katori Shinto Ryu:
One of the oldest and most famous kenjutsu schools in Japan. Named after the Katori Shrine, where it's practiced, this school was (and, to some extent, still is) very secretive. Prospective students used to need to swear a blood oath of secrecy before even stepping foot inside the dojo; this practice is still upheld in the Katori Shrine, but many teachers in other places readily teach a sizeable part of the curriculum to curious students without requiring an oath. Some of the techniques are only taught to the most trusted students there are, and (of course) always require a blood oath.
Philosophy: "We're at war, be ready for everything."
Temperament: The swordsmanship practiced in KSR is quite physically demanding. It has a certain rhythm of attack, and does not generally wait until an opportunity has presented itself, rather aiming to create it by being proactive. Endurance and speed are both required to keep up with the pace.
Technical focus: Very diverse. The marginally most common technique is the "rolling strike", a strike to the head; but apart from that, students are taught a large variety of different techniques and even different weapons.
Context of application: Many different ones. With or without armour, in a duel or a battlefield, with a drawn or sheathed sword, with other weapons, the techniques practiced are very diverse. Even some wrestling techniques are taught, as well as a few other battlefield skills. Students are swiftly prepared to survive a prospective battle, and are even instructed to be cautious around one another.
Yagyu Shinkage Ryu:
One of the two schools (the other being Ono-ha Itto Ryu) to be given the distinction of being considered "official" by the shogunate, as well as the first to make use of shinai. This allowed practitioners to spar freely with one another, greatly improving the quality of teaching compared to solely kata-based instruction. YSR teachings emphasize improvement of self above all. Many details of the body workings are prescribed, even down to the fingers and toes. This makes for a school that was renowned for its efficiency, without cultivating aggression in its practitioners.
Philosophy: "Strive to have the centre."
Temperament: Rather pacific. Emphasises self-improvement.
Technical focus: Ruining an opponent's attack with one's own. Typically, such a technique would first deflect an opponent's attack, and then continue on to the target.
Context of application: Unarmoured duels.
Niten Ichi Ryu:
A school that owes its fame to its founder: the most famous Japanese swordsman, Miyamoto Musashi. Officially formulated during Musashi's later years, it mainly concerns itself with the sword (katana, wakizashi or simultaneous wielding of the two), with some bojutsu and wrestling techniques included. Niten Ichi Ryu is most famous for its dual-sword curriculum, with a katana in one hand and a wakizashi in the other. However, it's worth noting that it's neither the only nor the first school to teach dual-sword techniques. Also, the main purpose of dual-wielding practice was to make the katana easier to wield one-handed. Musashi advocated the use of a katana in each hand.
Temperament: Calm and composed, influenced my Musashi's Buddhist practice.
Technical focus: Curiously, although Musashi considered chudan to be the most important stance to study, most-if-not-all of the techniques he taught are against an opponent that has assumed hasso. Many techniques are about avoiding to the side, or deflecting, or parrying, and the most usual targets are soft tissues such as the neck or wrists.
Context of application: Unarmoured duels.
A greatly feared school that had many victories. Characteristic for its "dragonfly" stance, essentially a modified version of hasso (see above) with the hands a couple decimetres higher.
Philosophy: "One strike is all you need. Don't even consider a second one."
Temperament: Highly aggressive. In rumour, students of this style required a paper cord to keep themselves from drawing their swords (and killing) more frequently than they had to.
Technical focus: Downward strike. That, combined with very loud and continuous yelling. Seriously, there was nothing else; just was one technique, practiced for over four million times yearly. It was so quick as to make evasion extremely difficult, and so powerful as to kill people by clanging their own sword against their skull.
Context of application: Practically, any battle wherein one is armed with a sword.
The afore-mentioned schools, like most old Japanese sword arts, were mainly focused on sword vs sword exercises. There were, however, a few famous schools with different areas of expertise, such as those outlined below.
A branch of an earlier kenjutsu school, Tendo Ryu ended up specializing in naginata vs sword techniques, taking advantage of the naginata's much longer reach and ease of cutting. A very popular martial art amongst the women of ~1900 (despite being founded by men), it also includes some techniques with swords, or with the broken shaft of a naginata. Well-suited to the woman intent on protecting her house-hold with the by-then-traditionally ladies' weapon.
Shinto Muso Ryu:
An art descendant of various older bojutsu teachings, it opted to shorten the bo by 30% to create a new, shorter staff called a jo. Mainly consisting of jo vs sword exercises, it uses the staff's longer reach to swipe the sword to the sides, attack the hands or head, trap the weapon and thrust to vulnerable points of the body. A few other weapons are also taught auxiliarly.
One of the earliest schools to solely focus on iaijutsu techniques. Eishin-ryu has techniques performed from seiza, tatehiza and from standing position. One notable aspect of Eishin-ryu when compared to other arts is its focus on environmental considerations, such as attacking from beneath an overhanging ledge or when passing under a gate. The majority of Eishin-ryu waza are intended for eliminating a single opponent, but there are techniques for dealing with multiple opponents.